Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on Friday released the first Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) in eight decades, saying the document would be essential for policy makers - both at the Centre and at the state-level.
"The enormity of schemes and reaches that all governments have, this document will form a basis of helping us target groups for support in terms of policy planning," he told reporters. He said the document will reflect the reality of India and be a very important input for all policymakers both for the central and state governments.
This is the first Census released after 1932 and contains various details with regard to specific regions, communities, caste and economic groups and measures the progress of the households in India.
"It is after 7-8 decades that we have this document after 1932 of the caste census. It is also a document which contains various details ... who are the ones who have qualitatively moved up in terms of life, which are the ones both in terms of geographical regions, social groupings which in future planning needs to be targeted," Jaitley said.
Here's what the Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011, carried out in all the 640 districts of the country, tells us on:
SECC-2011 is a study of socio economic status of rural and urban households and allows ranking of households based on predefined parameters. SECC 2011 has three census components which were conducted by three separate authorities but under the overall coordination of Department of Rural Development in the Government of India. Census in Rural Area has been conducted by the Department of Rural Development (DoRD). Census in Urban areas is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA). Caste Census is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General of India (RGI) and Census Commissioner of India.
Ministry of Rural Development commenced the Socio-Economic Caste Census-2011 on 29th June, 2011 through a comprehensive door to door enumeration across the country. The data of the exercise is now available for policy, research and for implementing various development programmes. It is therefore necessary that the data is understood with respect to the questionnaire (Annex-I). The following needs to be consciously taken on record while using SECC data.
(i) The SECC data is respondent based input along with the counter sign of enumerator.The data is the "revealed data" by the household to the enumerator. However, collected data also meets the approval of Gram Sabha and Panchayats.
(ii) The structure of the houses of household is described in SECC as Kuccha or Pucca depending on the respondent based information on predominant material used in walls and roof
(iii) Ownership status of the house is respondent based information.
(iv) Main source of income related to household has been clarified in rural areas as cultivation, manual casual labour, part time or full time domestic service, begging, non-agriculture own enterprise, begging/charity/alms and others. The various components of 'other' have however not been enumerated.
(v) Some nuances of data needs to be clarified. For instance, "Non-adult member" questionnaire has used the age group of 16-59 instead of 14-59. Similarly the question on income of the main earner does not ask logical question on any other earner. Thus, when the household reports less than Rs. 5000/ month as the income of the main earner the natural second question of any other earner would have defined poverty status of the house sharply in income term. However, the approach of SECC is torely on enumerating multidimensionality of poverty and rank households accordingly for receiving benefits of governments' positive interventions. Thus, even in the absence of the same, these households can be tracked on multi variable analysis on poverty by keeping in view the insecurity and uncertainty of wage jobs and insecure, unsafe and poor quality of households, etc.
(vi) SECC data is compilation of 24 lakhs enumeration blocks where each enumeration block has roughly 125 households. These are the same enumeration blocks that were formed during census. This allows SECC data to rank household and categorise them on the basis of socio economic status using automatic exclusion criteria, automatic inlusion criteria and deprivation criteria.
WHAT MAKES INDIA:
- Total 24.39 crore households (rural plus urban)
- 1.11 per cent of total households are public sector-employed; 3.57 per cent earn from private sector employment
- The country has 44.84 lakh domestic helps, 4.08 lakh rag pickers and 6.68 lakh beggars
- Of the total rural population, landless ownership is 56 per cent with 70 per cent of Scheduled Castes and 50 per cent of Scheduled Tribes being landless owners
- Of the 17.91 crore rural households:
- 39.39 per cent (or 7.05 crore) have income of less than Rs 10,000 per month, or do not own either an automobile, fishing boat or kisan credit card [called Excluded Households]
- 30.10 per cent (or 5.39 crore) depend on crop cultivation for sustenance
- 51.14 per cent (or 9.16 crore) earn income through manual casual labour
- 94 per cent own a house
- 54 per cent have 1-2 room dwellings
- Over 11 per cent have refrigerators
- 20.69 per cent have either an automobile or a fishing boat
- 5 per cent earn salary from the government
- In 75 per cent of 17.9 crore households in rural India, the monthly income of the highest-earning member is less than Rs.5,000
- Nearly 40 per cent are landless and work as manual casual labourers
- 25 per cent of the rural households still do not own a phone
- 25 per cent rural households have no access to irrigation
- Only 8.29 per cent of rural households have a member earning overRs.10,000 per month
- 10.69 crore rural families, or 60 per cent, qualify for "deprivation"
- Of these over 100 million deprived households, 21.5 per cent belong to scheduled castes or tribes.
- This census takes caste into account for the first time in any such exercise since 1931.
WHO IS PAYING INCOME TAX:
- 4.6 per cent of all rural households
- 10 per cent households with salaried income
- 3.49 per cent of Scheduled Caste households
- 3.34 per cent of Scheduled Tribe rural households